The following is a book review for the”Age of Spiritual Machines” written by Ray Kurzweil.
To begin with and to quote from the back cover:
”Imagine a world where the difference between man and machine blurs, where the line between humanity and technology fades, and where the soul and the silicon chip unite. This is not science fiction. This is the 21st century according to Ray Kurzweil, the inventor of the most innovative and compelling technology of our era. In his inspired hands, life in the new millennium no longer seems daunting. Instead, it promises to be an age in which the marriage of human sensitivity and artificial intelligence fundamentally alters and improves the way we live”
Now before I get into the details, let me begin by saying that I really really enjoyed Kurzweil’s writing style and well, the content. I think it was almost a decade ago, that I was casually introduced to the concept of the ‘technological singularity’ . That is what started my casual interest in all things cognitive sciences, very limited interest in artificial intelligence e.t.c. For someone to even dabble in these subjects and not come across the works of Ray Kurzweil is simply unheard of. So, up until this time, I have simply been watching some ofthe things that Ray has to say, primarily through Youtube. But this was the first book that I have gone through (cover to cover) that has been written by Ray himself.
For anyone who is not familiar with the basic concepts of Technological Singularity and or does not even have a latent interest in cognitive science, but happens to be reading this blogpost. For those individuals, this book is about technology, advances in computing, artificial intelligence and well unravelling some of the mysteries when it comes to a complex organ such as the human brain. And as the title of the book suggests, the content of the book builds up very quickly to determine the probability of when a machine based brain will emerge and the different scenarios of how it will all come about.
Now, a little bit about the author. Ray comes across as someone who thinks very deeply about the subjects that he is writing about. Kurzweil has the rare ability of painting the big picture, as well as getting into the details of how that vision will eventually come about. A significant percentage of the predictions that Kurzweil has made, have come true some 2 decade or more later. Remarkable track record. This list of predictions is long and unbelievably accurate (in scope and timing). Here is an example:
Kurzweil has also got a knack for debating both sides of the issue. I found the dialogues that keep popping up in the book from time to time, to be informative and amusing at the same time. These are thought experiments in the shape and form of dialogues really.
The Actual Book Review
Kurzweil’s manages to pull content from a variety of subjects, and not just related to the items mentioned above. It's almost like poetry. For example, the story begins with the very creation of the universe and subsequently the start of the evolutionary process here on earth. Then he gets into defining technology, as in what's technology at the bare minimum, the inevitability of technology and computing. Explaining things from the perspective of chaos and order, inevitability of Moore's Law e.t.c.
The next couple of chapters build up very quickly and we start getting into the realm of artificial intelligence and the various possibilities that will come about, with the emergence of a machine based brain. Kurzweil highlights the enormous benefits to society and I would say that the significant majority of the book focuses on the events leading up to, during and in a post technical singularity world. There is even a chronological timeline towards the back of the book that highlights the major achievements in the history of computing and tech and then shows the evolutionary path that these trends will be following.
There are some warnings, but by and large the content is focused on the benefits. The only exception to that rule are the warnings to pay attention to potential attacks from the luddites. A reoccurring theme throughout the book.
Also, there are so many ideas packed into this book! I couldn't help, but to stop, think about all the things Kurzweil had prophesied. You have to remember, that this book was written in 1995. So it was eerie to review the content and then actually come to the conclusion that some of these events (on the projected timeline) are occurring as we speak, exactly like Kurzweil had predicted some 19 years ago. For example, there is mention of Virtual Reality and Kurzweil starts getting into the details of how it will play out. And that totally was/is Oculus Rift and OMNI.
Coming back to the ideas bit. Seriously, there are entire product lines mentioned in this book. So quite naturally, I found myself sending out a couple of tweets relating to this.
Overall, this has got to be one of the most interesting books that I have gone through.
Our grasp of our consciousness is, well, still a guess. But Kurzweil predicts that in a couple of decades, we will start seeing the emergence of machines, machines that claim to be having spiritual experiences.
In short, Kurzweil has made me rethink the very notion of what it means to be human.
The Age of Spiritual machines. What a wonderful, wonderful read. Thank you Ray Kurzweil!
On page number 280 of his book ‘The Age of Spiritual Machines’, Ray Kurzweil describes the following:
By the year 2099:
"There's a strong trend towards a merger of human thinking with the world of machine intelligence that the human species initially created.
Being a casual observer of people and of our species, I have always thought that the way we exchange information with each other is, well, not very seamless. Because, it is still dependent upon the interpretation of another. And I think, this is why we always leave it to chance that only some xx percentage will 'get it' and even within that subset, they will 'get it' by xx percentage. This is not Science, this is a gamble.
Now, from a Historical point of view, we have gone from scrolls, to paper, to the hyperlink. And I believe, that virtual reality is the next big medium.
But again, when it comes to the 'seamless' transfer of information between two human brains/minds, even Virtual Reality could not offer to be that panacea.
Coming back to the comments by Kurzweil, specifically relating to this 'standard assimilated knowledge protocols' that he is referring to. First of all, this guy has remarkable insights. I can tell, how Kurzweil can visualize how things are going to going to be in the future and he can actually get down to the very details of how they will play out.
Now, the problem here is still a somewhat chaotic transfer of information. Meaning, all knowledge transfer in the world is inherently dependent upon how another brain/mind would interpret the situation/topic. That is a subject by itself.
But, wouldn't it be amazing if entire knowledge sets could be transferred from one human to another without any effort at all. To get to that level, we'd have to structure knowledge and repackage it.
The written letterform, became a representation of the linguistic abilities of our species. Words led to books, books led to the collection of thoughts. This, collection of thoughts led to things like rationalism, observation, science, expression e.t.c.
The next leap-frog from the age of knowledge to the age of transcendence will have a lot of key components. One of them will be the seamless transfer of knowledge from any one human to another. Or perhaps, from one to many and many to one.
Standard assimilated knowledge protocols make sense. What a wonderful concept!
This blog-post has been sitting in my drafts folder for quite some time.
In 2012, I came across an interesting research paper by Nils J. Nilsson. The title of this research paper is ’Artificial Intelligence, Employment and Income‘. It appears that the actual research paper was published in the summer of 1984.
Nilsson has raised a couple of interesting points in this paper. Excerpt below:
Now I haven't even scraped the surface of AI, machine learning and mobile robotics in general. But, these technologies will mature very rapidly and when they do, then there will be some sort of an impact on jobs. And specifically routine based jobs.
Hence, I think I agree with the gist of what Professor Nilsson has mentioned in this paper.
The sentiment about generational wide changes is shared amongst one or two other individuals that I have spoken to as well. In particular, I recall my conversation with one of the CompSci Professor at Ryerson University and how they agreed with the statement being made in bullet # 2 above.
Civilization would have to make the necessary changes today, in order to be able to truly meet the impact, that the birth of true and real A.I is going to create in the future. Waiting for that moment to arrive is not an option.
Professor Nils J. Nilsson is not the first or the only scientist to have raised this issue in a reasonable, legible, rational way. Shedding light on this issue is important. Equally important is to do it in such a way that is rational. That does not have a luddite bias attached to it. Here, I use the term technology in the broader sense. One that encompasses advancement made in computing, AI and robotics. We need more investments and continued advancement in these areas as this is the only way of ensuring that we are able to provide for 7 billion people (and growing).
Also, in the near-term future state, the overall issue of employment requires a new vision and a new way of thinking. Hence, design-thinking becomes that much more important.
Originally published on November 6, 2011
I've been thinking about these sentient beings. Sentient beings that we'd be able to create by leveraging technology. But also, sentient beings that are able to replicate the essence of consciousness.
I recall this short story called “the fun they had“ written by Isaac Asimov. In this short story, Asimov envisions mechanical tutors and how the process of learning is completely mechanized.
Now, that short story was satire as it hypothesizes what children miss out on by not being in school. It's all about mechanical tutors and home schooling in that short story.
But in a future state, learning need not be like that. At the same time, making use of a sentient AI. Backed by a sentient network, big data and cloud. Something like that could truly customize and revolutionize learning as we know it.
An individualized, more engaging, enhanced form of learning in a social environment. Wouldn't that be something.